Computer graphics


Dr. Norhaida Mohd Suaib

A branch of computer science that deals with the theory and techniques of computer image synthesis. Computers produce images by analyzing a collection of dots, or pixels (picture elements). Computer graphics is used to enhance the transfer and understanding of information in science, engineering, medicine, education, and business by facilitating the generation, production, and display of synthetic images of natural objects with realism almost indistinguishable from photographs. Computer graphics facilitates the production of images that range in complexity from simple line drawings to three-dimensional reconstructions of data obtained from computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans in medical applications. User interaction can be increased through animation, which conveys large amounts of information by seemingly bringing to life multiple related images. Animation is widely used in entertainment, education, industry, flight simulators, scientific research, and heads-up displays (devices which allow users to interact with a virtual world). Virtual-reality applications permit users to interact with a three-dimensional world, for example, by “grabbing” objects and manipulating objects in the world. Digital image processing is a companion field to computer graphics. However, image processing, unlike computer graphics, generally begins with some image in image space, and performs operations on the components (pixels) to produce new images.

Computers are equipped with special hardware to display images. Several types of image presentation or output devices convert digitally represented images into visually perceptible pictures. They include pen-and-ink plotters, dot-matrix plotters, electrostatic or laser-printer plotters, storage tubes, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), active matrix panels, plasma panels, and cathode-ray-tube (CRT) displays. Images can be displayed by a computer on a cathode-ray tube in two different ways: raster scan and random (vector) scan.

Interaction with the object takes place via devices attached to the computer, starting with the keyboard and the mouse. Each type of device can be programmed to deliver various types of functionality. The quality and ease of use of the user interface often determines whether users enjoy a system and whether the system is successful. Interactive graphics aids the user in the creation and modification of graphical objects and the response to these objects in real-time. The most commonly used input device is the mouse. Other kinds of interaction devices include the joystick, trackball, light pen, and data tablet. Some of these two-dimensional (2D) devices can be modified to extend to three dimensions (3D). The data glove is a device capable of recording hand movements. The data glove is capable of a simple gesture recognition and general tracking of hand orientation.