Artificial neural network

  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azlan Mohd Zain Artificial neural networks (ANN) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. Such systems “learn” to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being […]

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Women in development

  Dr. Zilal Saari More than forty years have passed since the 1975 Conference in Mexico and the initiation of the United Nations Decade for Women. Great theoretical strides have been made and disappointing practical returns noted. No longer is […]

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Hadith

  Dr. Mohd Al’Ikhsan Ghazali Hadith in Islam refers to what Muslims believe to be a record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Hadith has been called “the backbone” of Islamic civilization,[4] and […]

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Islamic civilization

  Dr. Zulkiflee Haron Islamic history and culture can be traced through the written records: Pre-Islamic, early Islamic, Umayyad, the first and second Abbasid, the Hispano-Arabic, the Persian and the modern periods. The various influences of these different periods can […]

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Islamic education

  Dr. Aminudin Hehsan Islamic education takes into consideration Islamic scripture and Prophetic statements, along with commonly-held approaches to schooling in Muslim history. It concludes that key motivations and characteristics of a holistic and purposeful education program are shared between […]

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Computational fluid dynamics

  Dr. Mohd Ridza Mohd Haniffah Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to analyze and solve problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required […]

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Computer graphics

  Dr. Norhaida Mohd Suaib A branch of computer science that deals with the theory and techniques of computer image synthesis. Computers produce images by analyzing a collection of dots, or pixels (picture elements). Computer graphics is used to enhance […]

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Functional data analysis

  Dr. Shariffah Suhaila Syed Jamaludin Functional data analysis (FDA) is a branch of statistics that analyzes data providing information about curves, surfaces or anything else varying over a continuum. In its most general form, under an FDA framework, each […]

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Soft computing

  Dr. Sarina Sulaiman Soft computing is the use of approximate calculations to provide imprecise but usable solutions to complex computational problems. The approach enables solutions for problems that may be either unsolvable or just too time-consuming to solve with […]

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